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As regulated companies operate in different regions and run different networks, they might incur different production costs due to firm-specific production environments. The resulting cost differences incurred by a more or less favorable production environment should not be confounded with inefficiency, since typically, the production environment is not under the control of the company.

Hence, such cost differences should also be taken into account when elaborating an appropriate benchmark. Consequently, this thesis also considers the modeling of observable heterogeneity in production. After defining different measures of inefficiency and reviewing the relevant literature, several such parametric methods are applied to two data sets to study the impact of different assumptions regarding the distribution of inefficiency and heterogeneity in a comparative analysis. The first data set consists of a sample of Swiss rural bus companies.

Results suggest that estimated inefficiencies and the ranking of companies are strongly influenced by the different methods used. Estimation also suggests that in the sample, considerable economies of scale are present.

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Potential regulators should therefore support mergers among adjacent bus operators. The second application to a sample of Swiss gas distribution companies reveals that in contrast to the finding of the previous application, estimated inefficiencies are rather stable across estimated model. However, efficiency rankings of the companies vary. In contrast to the sample of bus companies, the latter is rather small, containing only observations. Hence, richer econometric models could not be applied as the variation in the sample did not allow to separate unobserved, with regressors uncorrelated heterogeneity from inefficiency.

As this separation was not possible, estimated inefficiency scores might be confounded with heterogeneity. A potential regulator should therefore not directly use these scores in an incentive-based regulation scheme. However, the predicted costs could be used in a yardstick competition.

With regard to economies of scale, results suggest that expanding the existing networks does not help to lower average production costs, because the main cost driving factors are the network investment costs. Conversely, there exist economies of density, suggesting to intensify the use of existing networks. Overall, this thesis shows that estimated inefficiencies and their ranking are sensitive to the adopted method and that a single model which is able to overcome all practical and theoretical problems does not exists.

Therefore, it is concluded that a potential regulator should use these models with caution. Das Ziel dieser Revisionen ist eine Effizienzsteigerung in der Leistungerbringung der regulierten Industrien.

Renewable energy - Wikipedia

Die meisten in der Praxis angewendeten Instrumente beruhen auf einem Benchmarking, was bedeutet, dass das Betriebsergebnis der zu regulierenden Firmen mit einem Referenzergebnis verglichen wird. Des weiteren wird ein neues Paneldatenmodell, basierend auf der Idee von Mundlak, diskutiert und angewendet. Diese Unterschiede in den Produktionskosten entstehen, weil regulierte Firmen typischerweise in verschiedenen Gebieten mit unterschiedlichen Produktionsbedingungen operieren.

Aus diesem Grund untersucht diese Arbeit, wie sich beobachtbare Unterschiede modellieren lassen.

Renewable energy

Der erste Datensatz besteht aus regionalen Busbetrieben der Schweiz. Die Anwendung auf eine Auswahl von schweizerischen Gasversorgungsunternehmen zeigt im Gegensatz zur ersten Anwendung relativ stabile Ineffizienzwerte. Ein Regulator sollte deshalb die Werte nicht direkt in einer anreizorientierten Regulierungsmethode verwenden. Jedoch scheinen Dichtevorteile zu existieren, was nahelegt, dass die bestehenden Netze intensiver genutzt werden sollten.

Aus diesem Grund sollte ein Regulator diese Modelle mit Vorsicht verwenden. Homepage Navigation Content Sitemap Search. The Centre. DOI: Three Essays in Environmental and Health Economics. The Case of Distributed Energy Resources. Essays on energy economics and policy: Price elasticity, policy evaluation and potential savings.

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Sustainable energy: New energy innovations to make the future brighter - Compilation

Market failures in climate economics and finance. ROCs are ultimately used by suppliers to demonstrate that they have met their obligation. Where suppliers do not present a sufficient number of ROCs to meet their obligation, they must pay an equivalent amount into a buy-out fund. The mechanism of Green Deal is to allow householders to apply for loans for energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies including solar PV helping them with the upfront cost and this money is paid back in instalments through their energy bills. The repayments are arranged in such a way that the money householders are paying back is about equal to the savings they are making as a result of the installation Nicholson, This scheme can be merged with FiT to increase the net savings.

For example, a typical 3. The current UK situation is that the deployment of renewables schemes under the FiT scheme have exceeded expectations, to the point where spending has breached the limits of the government's Levy Control Framework, which itself sets limits on the amount of money that can be added to consumer bills to support low carbon electricity generation.

Research is mainly carried out at academic institutions and by few companies, especially those who have collaboration with academic institutions. PV technology is rapidly growing and its contribution to electricity demand is significantly rising. It was calculated that globally, at least TWh PV electricity was generated in the , i. It is quite easy to measure the electricity production of an individual PV plant, but much more complicated to compile it for the whole country.


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In addition, it is difficult to compare the installed PV system on date with the production of electricity. For example, PV system installed in December will only produce a small fraction of its regular annual production, while the issue may exist where the weather condition of the same year may not be good for typical long-term average. For these reasons, the PV electricity production calculation is theoretical and is based on cumulative PV capacity of the specific countries. Figure 4 International Energy Agency, a shows the theoretical PV electricity production that is close to optimum siting, orientation and average weather condition Snapshot of Global PV , Theoretical percentage share of PV electricity production in of five leading countries.

However, it can be noticed from Figures 2—4 that China and USA are leading the market in terms of yearly installation as well as cumulative installed capacity, but they are far behind in terms of generation of PV electricity as compared to their actual demand. It is observed that, for decades, the prices of solar modules have decreased significantly. The decline in prices has been due to the factors such as a innovations in material technology, b increases in the amount of production, c improvements in the efficiency by innovative technology, d increasing lifespan of PV system and e favourable policies for solar technology GreenPeace International, Solar PV cells price trend.

A complete PV system combines PV modules with set of additional application dependent system components like mounting structure, inverter, charge controller, electrical components, etc. There are several reasons to take USA as an example such as government investment, market diversity, climate diversity and high labour cost.

This significant fall in both module price and BOS price has gained much attention of investors and, as a result, there are several new projects building all over the world.